Expertise. Insights. Illumination.
But unlike genes, proteins won't work in a straight line. If it looks like it was made in a factory, don't eat it! It acts by reducing the growth of cancer cells and the formation of blood vessels in tumors and appears to be toxic to cancer cells, causing cell death. This is what we wanted to do, you know? The pharynx is made up of three parts. It's something you should all be tremendously proud of.
You are now subscribed
They are like the travelers going a head without any destination Scalars Physical quantities which can be completely specified by 1. A number which represents the magnitude of the quantity. Patriotism means love and regard for the country. It is a natural instinct that men loves the place where he gets birth and where he is brou Patriotism Patriotism means love and regard for the country. It is a natural instinct that men loves the place where he gets birth and My Dear Friend, I am much grieved to learn from your letter about the sad demise of your dear mother.
May her soul rest in eternal peace! He was a religious man educated at Christ Hospital. He then became the e The Devoted Friend Introduction The Devoted Friend is an interesting short story of two friends having different temperaments and diff My Aim in Life Aimless life is certainly a sin. They are like the travelers going a head with About Me Kawish Hassan View my complete profile. It has both openings, mouth and anus. It opens into oral cavity.
Lips close the mouth. Lips also help in ingestion. Tongue forms floor Palate forms roof Jaws form roof boundary of mouth. Both jaws bear teeth. It consisting of 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 12 molars. Incisors are cutting and biting teeth. Their flat sharp edges cut food into smaller pieces. Canines are pointed teeth and poorly developed in humans. They are used in tearing, killing and piercing the prey.
Premolars and Molars are grinders and used for crushing the food. Mastication increases surface are of food for action of enzymes. If one attempt to swallow a food particle too large to enter ocsophagus, it may block the trachea and may stop ventilation. Calcified plaque forms dental calculus.
Continuous inflammation may spread to the root of tooth and destroy peridental layer. Eventually tooth becomes loose and falls off or may have to be extracted.
When dentine and pulp are attached, produce toothache and loss of teeth. Taste buds are most numerous on sides of vallate papillae. They are absent on mid dorsal region of oral part of tongue. It mixes the masticated food with saliva 3. It helps in swalloing 4. It helps in sucking and testing food. It is supplied by IX cranial nerve. Supplied by VII cranial nerve. These glands are supplied by Parasympathetic Nervous System.
Fibers of parasympathic N. S lie in Cranial nerves. These nerves increase their secretion. Mucous of Saliva moistens and lubricates the food particles prior to swallowing. Salivary Amylase or Ptylin begins digestion of starch, first to dextrins and then to maltose dissacharide. Lysozyme destroys the oral cavity pathogen bacteria.
It has a cleansing action. Water in Saliva, dissolve some of the molecules in food particle then they react with chemo receptors in taste buds, giving sensation of taste, hence, the H2O enables taste buds to respond.
Saliva is fully saturated with calcium and this prevents decalcification of teeth. Saliva makes speech possible by moistening the mouth; it is not possible to talk if the mouth is dry. It acts as a lubricant and enables a bolus a rounded mass of semi-solid, partially digested food particles stick together by mucus to be formed. The tongue pushes bolus into pharynx. As the bolus of food moves into the pharynx, the soft palate is elevated and lodges against the back wall of pharynx sealing the nasal cavity and preventing food from entering it.
The swallowing center inhibit respiration, raises the larynx and closes the glottis opening between vocal cords , keeping food from getting into trachea.
As the tongue forces the food further back into the pharynx, the bolus tilts the epiglottis backward to cover the closed glottis. This pharyngeal act of swallowing lasts about 1 second. It connects pharynx to stomach. It passes through the thoracic cavity and penetrates the diaphragm, then it joins the stomach a few cms below the diaphragm.
Lower two-third is surrounded by smooth muscles. Skeletal muscles, just below pharynx surrounding oesophagus form Upper Oesophageal Sphincter. In general, men have a higher BMR than women. One of the most accurate methods of estimating your basal metabolic rate is the Harris-Benedict formula:. The second factor in the equation, physical activity , consumes the next highest number of calories. Physical activity includes everything from making your bed in the morning to jogging.
Walking, lifting, bending and just generally moving around burns calories, but the number of calories you burn in any given activity depends on your body weight. Click here for a great table listing the calories expended in various physical activities and for various weights. The thermic effect of food is the final addition to the number of calories your body burns. One site excavated in Krapina, Croatia, contains scattered, fragmentary remains of many Neanderthals.
In addition to the clues mentioned above, the skeletal remains at Krapina contain bones which have been burned, which some scientists have touted as clear evidence of cannibalism. For all the disgust and repulsion we feel when we imagine ourselves taking a big, juicy bite of human flesh, the fact is that cannibalism among animals is surprisingly common and, most of all, a perfectly natural part of the behavior of organisms—including humans.
Cannibalism is likely a natural, innate trait that needs to be activated under certain environmental stimuli. The crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight shows that even modern humans, who are typically repulsed by the idea and may even have deeply held religious convictions against it, will eat one another if push comes to shove, stuck in the deep, bone-chilling cold, with no recourse for help. Kuru is a sweet little bit of karma in the form of a prion that devastatingly infects the human brain.
Kuru was especially prominent among the Fore people in New Guinea, particularly during the s and s. In a quite macabre twist of fate, victims of kuru end up dying of dementia, as the prion from the consumed brain tissue ends up infecting the brain of the consumer. Kuru is slow, steady, and downright awful, so if you were considering cannibalism, particularly eating human brains, take this as a warning: You can catch some seriously nasty pathogens by doing so and end up losing your life within a year.
Kuru is but one ailment in a class of illnesses referred to as prion diseases are a class of many diseases, only a handful of which are known, which cause severe damage to the brain in the form of neurodegeneration and a general breakdown of the brain. These diseases happen because the animal is infected with prions, a form of protein which is highly destructive, yet still not entirely understood.
We do know, however, that cannibalism is a risk factor for prion disease. It is actually believed that the early human race suffered from full-blown prion epidemics , as cannibalism was more widespread for various reasons during prehistory. The consumption of humans by humans only led to more dead humans to consume.
Specifically, people who ate people and survived carry a genetic mutation called V People with thus mutation survived the kuru epidemic, and it appears to grant resistance to other prion diseases as well.