Obesity: identification, assessment and management

Stem Cell Therapy for Liv...

11. Older Adults
Treatment recommendations for CKD in cats International Renal Interest Society says that introducing a therapeutic diet "may be accomplished more easily early in the course of CKD, before inappetance develops. Effect of combined supplementation with alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, and beta-carotene on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Cats with hyperthyroidism also tend to lose a lot of muscle, which is an additional headache if your cat has both CKD and hyperthyroidism. This page starts with a brief overview of the physiological needs of cats generally. Older adults with type 1 diabetes are a heterogeneous group and have not been well studied.

Graphical abstract

Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements

Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops and animals is an effective preventive measure. Zinc deficiency may affect up to 2 billion people worldwide.

Novel zinc biomarkers, such as the erythrocyte LA: DGLA ratio, have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials and are being developed to more accurately detect dietary zinc deficiency.

Zinc deficiency may manifest as acne , [7] eczema , [8] xerosis dry, scaling skin , [8] seborrheic dermatitis , [8] or alopecia thin and sparse hair. Zinc deficiency can manifest as non-specific oral ulceration , stomatitis , or white tongue coating. Severe zinc deficiency may disturb the sense of smell [9] and taste. Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e. Zinc deficiency contributes to an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea.

Zinc deficiency may lead to loss of appetite or anorexia nervosa. At least 15 clinical trials have shown that zinc improved weight gain in anorexia. A trial showed that zinc doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Deficiency of other nutrients such as tyrosine, tryptophan and thiamine could contribute to this phenomenon of "malnutrition-induced malnutrition". Cognitive functions, such as learning and hedonic tone , are impaired with zinc deficiency.

Low plasma zinc levels have been alleged to be associated with many psychological disorders. Schizophrenics have been shown to have decreased brain zinc levels [28] and supplementation as an adjuvant was shown to improve symptoms in one study.

Zinc deficiency in children can cause delayed growth [8] and has been claimed to be the cause of stunted growth in one third of the world's population. Zinc deficiency during pregnancy can negatively affect both the mother and fetus. Animal studies indicate that maternal zinc deficiency can upset both the sequencing and efficiency of the birth process.

An increased incidence of difficult and prolonged labor, hemorrhage, uterine dystocia and placental abruption has been documented in zinc deficient animals. However, a review on zinc supplementation trials during pregnancy did not report a significant effect of zinc supplementation on neonatal survival.

Zinc deficiency can interfere with many metabolic processes when it occurs during infancy and childhood, a time of rapid growth and development when nutritional needs are high. Zinc is required to produce testosterone. Thus, zinc deficiency can lead to reduced circulating testosterone, hypogonadism , and delayed puberty.

Zinc deficiency can be caused by a diet high in phytate-containing whole grains, foods grown in zinc deficient soil, or processed foods containing little or no zinc. Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an inherited deficiency of the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 resulting in inadequate zinc absorption. Numerous small bowel diseases which cause destruction or malfunction of the gut mucosa enterocytes and generalized malabsorption are associated with zinc deficiency.

Exercising, high alcohol intake, and diarrhea all increase loss of zinc from the body. Exercising, childhood growth, and pregnancy [49] all increase utilization. The mechanism of zinc deficiency in some diseases has not been well defined; it may be multifactorial. Wilson's disease , sickle cell disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease have all been associated with zinc deficiency.

Although marginal zinc deficiency is often found in depression, low zinc levels could either be a cause or a consequence of mental disorders and their symptoms. As biosystems are unable to store zinc, regular intake is necessary. Excessively low zinc intake can lead to zinc deficiency, which can negatively impact an individual's health.

It is important in maintaining basic cellular functions such as DNA replication , RNA transcription , cell division and cell activations. However, having too much or too little zinc can cause these functions to be compromised. In its catalytic role, zinc is a critical component of the catalytic site of hundreds of kinds of different metalloenzymes in each human being.

In its regulatory role, zinc is involved in the regulation of nucleoproteins and the activity of various inflammatory cells. For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has multiple functions, such as intracellular zinc compartmentalization [57] and antioxidant function.

Pra1 pH regulated antigen 1 is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Zinc deficiency can be classified as acute, as may occur during prolonged inappropriate zinc-free total parenteral nutrition ; or chronic, as may occur in dietary deficiency or inadequate absorption. Severe zinc deficiency is rare, and is mainly seen in persons with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a severe defect in zinc absorption due to a congenital deficiency in the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 in the enterocyte.

Providing micronutrients, including zinc, to humans is one of the four solutions to major global problems identified in the Copenhagen Consensus from an international panel of economists. Significant historical events related to zinc deficiency began in when zinc was first discovered to be essential to the growth of an organism Aspergillus Niger.

Zinc was found to be essential to the growth of rats in In zinc levels in a series of autopsies found it to be present in all tissues examined.

In a study showed most zinc excretion was via the feces. In a normal serum zinc level was first defined, and found to be In cirrhotic patients were found to have low serum zinc levels.

In zinc was determined to be essential to human growth, three enzymes requiring zinc as a cofactor were described, and a report was published of a year-old Iranian man with stunted growth, infantile genitalia, and anemia which were all reversed by zinc supplementation.

When humans eat plants or animals they are consuming minerals in those forms. Humans are not supposed to directly consume soil components [1]. With the exception of sodium chloride common table salt , humans do not normally in any significant quantity consume minerals in the chemical forms known as mineral salts. When they do, it is considered to be a disorder called 'geophagia' or 'pica' [11,12].

It is a fact that mineral salts are often called "natural", but they are not food minerals. Mineral salts are normally inorganic molecular compounds that look like rocks [13]. Mineral salts are a compound containing a mineral element, which is the mineral normally listed on a supplement label, and some other substance it is chemically bound to. Mineral salts are either rocks e. Mineral salts are natural food for plants which can chemically change and detoxify them [14]; they are not a natural food for humans, although some people do consider crushed bones and naturally-calcified sea algae, etc.

Minerals bound in mineral salts simply are not treated the same way in the body as are minerals found in food. There is a relatively easy way to tell if minerals are industrial chemicals.

The exception is chromium GTF the GTF stands for glucose tolerance factor which is food if it is from nutritional yeast [18]. Chelated minerals are generally crushed industrial rocks that are processed with one or more acids. Probably the biggest difference in minerals now compared to is that some companies have decided to industrially produce versions of minerals attached to peptides.

Essentially they take a rock or industrial mineral salt, chemically alter it, and attempt to attach it to the mineral. This results in a mineral that is different from normal mineral salts, but does not turn the substance into a food. Examples of this include the various mineral ascorbates, picolinates, aspartates, glycinates, and chelates. It needs to be understood that since there is not a universally accepted definition of the term 'chelate', when this term is used on a label, one generally does not know if the chelate is amino-acid based or some type of industrial acid.

While it is true that humans can, and do, utilize minerals from USP mineral salts or chelated minerals, this is not as safe or even normally as effective as consuming them from foods or in the case of real food supplements, food concentrates.

When extracted from food, that certain chemical salt is extracted, may even become a poison. Potash by itself is a poison, whether it comes from a food or from the drugstore. This is also the case with phosphorus. You thereby overtax your system, and your functions must work harder, in order to throw off those inorganic salts or poisons introduced The chemical elements that build our body must be in biochemical, life-producing form. They must come to us as food, magnetically, electrically alive, grown from the dust of the earth When we are lacking any element at all, we are lacking more than one element.

There is no one who ever lacked just one element. It should be noted that the addition of "citric acid and picolinic acid do not appear to enhance zinc absorption" [23]. Chromium picolinate is a human-made substance, created by Gary Evans [24]; it is not a natural food.

Picolinic acid is used in herbicides [17]; furthermore "picolinic acid is an excretory or waste product. It is not metabolized by or useful to the body" [25]. Concerns are being raised from various sources about the implications of intentional ingestion of inorganic substances in supplements by human beings [22,25,26].

These substances are not natural for humans to consume and a long period of consumption may cause some type of toxic accumulation [22,25,26]. Yet, many people supposedly interested in natural health are daily consuming various carbonates, gluconates, oxides, picolinates, phosphates, sulfates and other rock components that were not intended to be ingested that way.

Jay Patrick claims to have originally developed procedures to manufacture all seven of the mineral ascorbates [21]; thus it would seem highly inappropriate to call supplements with ascorbate attached minerals 'food'.

Actually, it does not appear that any of the minerals marketed as 'chelated' are food concentrates, though there are foods which contain naturally chelated minerals, but these are normally marketed as food minerals.

Even though there are some theoretical advantages to industrially-produced mineral 'chelates' as compared to inorganic mineral salts, these chelates are not natural food.

In nutrition science the term 'bioavailability' encompasses the sum of impacts that may reduce or foster the metabolic utilization of a nutrient" [28]. Furthermore, minerals used in most supplements do not contain protein chaperones or other food factors needed for absorption into the cell. In , the Nobel Prize for medicine was awarded to Guenter Blobel who discovered that minerals need protein chaperones to be absorbed into cellular receptors. In this situation, these minerals become charged ions, and their absorbability becomes in jeopardy.

These charged free minerals are known to block the absorption of one another, or to combine with other dietary factors to form compounds that are unabsorbable" [53]. The body must discard the residual chemicals. Foods used in supplements that commonly provide significant quantities of essential minerals include dulse, horsetail herb, kelp, nutritional yeast, rice bran, and water thyme.

These types of foods have been shown to contain not only minerals in natural food forms, but also important protein chaperones such as ATX1 and ceruplasmin [54,55]. Industrial mineral salts do not contain the protein chaperones or other food factors needed for proper mineral absorption. Furthermore, some foods also contain factors which reduce the probability of certain minerals to be toxic to the body [32,33,55]; industrial mineral salts and chelates are simply not that complete.

There are quantitative and qualitative differences in food vs. Table 1 lists some of them by mineral. Better absorbed and retained [45,46] and not as likely to contribute to toxicity as mined forms [36,56]. Foods, almost by definition, are not toxic, and as mentioned earlier, can have protective factors to prevent certain potential mineral toxicities, such as those sometimes associated with copper, iron, manganese, or other minerals [32,33,55,56].

Some differences between food complexed minerals and mineral salts have been documented by published research and are shown by individual mineral below:. Boron affects macromineral and steriodal hormone metabolism; without sufficient boron bone composition, strength, and structure weaken [9].

This is one of the reasons why isolated calcium mineral salts such as calcium carbonate are not absorbed as well as calcium found in natural food complexes [56,57]. At least one researcher has concluded that commonly used mineral salts such as calcium lactate and calcium gluconate primarily succeed in creating high blood calcium levels hypercalcemia instead of alleviating symptoms of low tissue calcium [59].

Calcium can affect mood and blood pressure [57,60]. This does not appear to be the case with isolated calcium salts the results appear inconsistent [30,].

One study found that calcium in Food raised serum ionic calcium levels from 1. Serum calcium levels affect blood pressure [60,64]. Since low bone mass is somewhat inversely correlated with high levels of diastolic blood pressure [9], this suggests that calcium from Food may be superior when hypertension issues are present.

It appears that overdose of calcium can only occur when taking mineral salt forms of calcium supplement as opposed to food [66]. A human study found that Natural Food Complex calcium is 8. Chromium is not naturally found in the body in the commonly supplemented forms such as chromium picolinate or chromium chelate. Research suggests that there is much less likelihood of toxicity from natural food complex chromium than from forms such as chromium picolinate [26].

Chromium GTF only comes from nutritional yeast [58]. Copper is not naturally found in the body in the form of copper gluconate or copper sulfate. Copper in foods like nutritional yeast contains protective factors that reduce the possibility of toxicity issues [32,46].

A human study found that Food copper was 1. Animal studies showed similar results, plus concluded that Food copper was retained in the liver 1. Iodine Most of the iodine in the body exists in the form of iodine-containing amino acids [61]. Kelp is an excellent food source of iodine [61]. The body has different mechanisms for the absorption of iron depending upon its form [72]. Iron in foods is found in an organic form. Iron in food is safer, less-constipating actually it is non-constipating , and better absorbed than non-food forms [33,34].

An animal study found that Food iron was absorbed into the blood 1. There are no promoting dietary components in inorganic isolated magnesium salts. Magnesium in foods is better absorbed and retained than magnesium from inorganic mineral salts [35]. A human study found that Natural Food Complex magnesium was 2. Manganese is predominantly found in foods in a manganese peptide complex such as Mn superoxide-dismutase. It is not found in the body in forms like manganese sulfate. It can also affect skin, hair, nails, and problems with calcium metabolism [9].

Manganese in foods is safer and much less likely to cause any toxicity compared to mined forms [36,56]. An animal study found that Natural Food Complex manganese was absorbed 1. An animal study found that Food molybdenum was absorbed 6. Phosphorus Phosphorus is found in plants [11]. Phosphorus salts can cause diarrhea and other problems [37]—problems that do not happen with phosphorus in foods.

Phosphorus works with calcium to produce strong bones [57]. Potassium is the leading intracellular electrolyte and is necessary for electrolyte balance, stimulating aldersterone for the adrenal glands, and blood pressure regulation [11]. Bernard Jensen seemed to believe potassium is only safe in its natural food complex form [22]. That is how it is predominantly found in certain foods.

Selenium seems to support thyroid hormone production, function as part of many enzymes, and have antioxidant effects [74]. Food selenium is about twice as well retained as non-food forms [29,38]. Research suggests that Food selenium is 2. An in vitro study found that Food selenium had One study found that Food selenium was Silicon absorption is quite dependent upon the form [9]. Silicon is involved in bone calcification and connective tissue formation [9]. It is also needed for healthy hair and skin [51].

Silicon is found in foods in an organic form. Sea vegetables and certain yeasts are a good source of trace minerals [11,31,61]. Vanadium in foods is found in an organic form. Zinc itself is generally found in the human body in ionic form [71,76]; it is often bound with albumin [23,76] or alpha2-macroglobulin [23] or exists as part of one of the many zinc metalloenzymes [23,76]. Zinc is predominantly found in foods as zinc peptide complex such as that complexed with superoxide dismutase.

Zinc is not naturally found in the body as zinc gluconate, zinc orotate, zinc sulfate, nor zinc picolinate. Zinc deficiency in humans can cause alopecia, impotence, skin problems, immune deficiencies, night blindness, impaired taste, delayed wound healing, impaired appetite, photophobia, difficulty in dark adaptation, growth retardation, and male infertility [23]. Zinc in yeast-containing foods is better absorbed and is a better form for humans than inorganic forms [40,41].

Studies indicate that Food zinc appears to be 1. Although food and therefore nutrients are seemingly plentiful, because of modern use of chemical herbicides and pesticides as well as poor air quality and bad water, the nutrients we buy in the market are very inferior.

Human bodies require nutrition found in the form of plants, meat, milk, eggs and water, but all animals get their food directly or indirectly from plants, and all plants get their food from the soil.

Therefore mineral deficient soil may be one of the greatest original sources of disease in the world today. We cannot appreciate enough the importance of our relationship with the land, with soil. This is particularly so in this era of artificial chemicals, artificial foods, and the abundance of artificial materials on which we have come to depend. This system cannot replace real soil and the livin g food crops it produces.

Because of this Nutritional supplementation is necessary. After genetics and weather, the condition of the soil is the most important factor in the nutrient content of any plant food and, indirectly, of animal foods. The soils of the world have suffered, and continue to suffer, at the hands of farming.

The present food production system, while correcting some abuses of the past, inflicts on the soil a variety of new and old insults that diminish its nutrient value.

Because of intensive farming, poor crop management, erosion, commercial fertilization, the use of pesticides, and other problematic factors, much of the soil in which our crops are now raised has been depleted, particularly of essential minerals. The human food chain includes animals, animal products and plants, which depend directly or indirectly on the soil. Plants draw their nutrients and general health from a complex of inorganic and organic factors.

Inorganic substances include oxygen and carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, along with iron, calcium, and an array of other minerals. The chief organic factors range from decaying plant material and animal wastes to earthworms and an amazing variety of microscopic organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa Hall Healthy soil is America's greatest natural resource.

But few realize that the current state of wide spread soil erosion in North America threatens our way of life. It may be hard to believe, but only a few inches of topsoil stand between you, me, and starvation. It is only in the precious shallow topsoil that plants are seeded, germinated, sprouted, nurtured, and grown. SAMe is quite expensive, and can be gradually replaced by methionine after a couple of months.

Nearly all severely undermethylated persons have low serotonin levels and present with a history of depression, internal anxiety, and OCD. Many have a history of perfectionism and high accomplishment in the early years.

Unfortunately this population also has a tendency for non-compliance with any treatment. The late and great Carl Pfeiffer would occasionally resort to use of the anti-histamines Benedryl or Dilantin in high-histamine persons who were slow to respond. Avoidance of folate supplements is essential for most undermethylated persons, an exception being autism. Some practitioners like to tinker with the SAM cycle to promote conversion of homocysteine to methionine, but this can deplete the cystathione pathway and result in deficiencies of glutathione, cysteine, etc.

Some persons have a genetic enzyme weakness which can disrupt the SAM cycle. Also, augmenting nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, B-6, and zinc are essential.

TMG generally provides some benefits to undermethylated persons, but tends to make oxidative stress protections worse by diminishing the amount of homocysteine which converts via the cystathione pathway of the SAM cycle. TMG certainly is a promising nutrient for such persons, and adding some cysteine or glutathione can overcome the cystathione pathway deficit. Personally, I believe the use of SAMe is the quickest way to help an undermethylated, high-histamine person. There are many possible causes of serotonin deficiency including severe B-6 deficiency, folate overload, undermethylation, malabsorption, tryptophan deficiency, weak activity of tetrahydrobiopterin, etc.

It would help a lot if the underlying reason for the low serotonin activity could be identified. The rate-limiting BH4 step in serotonin synthesis deserves special attention. Oxidative stress can also increase serotonin requirements.

However, I believe that chelation for serotonin enhancement is a very bad idea. The patient might be better served by supplements of glutathione, selenium, metallothionein-promotion nutrients, etc, to reduce oxidative stresses.

Sometimes medical care like politics is the art of the possible. We have major compliance problems with mentally-ill patients who hate medications. Very few of our SZ or bipolar patients have any money or any insurance other than medicare.

As a public charity, we provide financial assistance for most of our seriously mentally ill clients. Eventually a patient will wonder if they really need to continue swallowing those capsules daily, and may stop for a few days. Often they are ok for about a month and then relapse.

Nutrient therapy is much slower in response than medications. We learned that best results are achieved if the patient continues their medication s , if any, during the first few months of treatment. Many psychiatrists will agree to this….. Most OCD patients both obsessive thoughts AND compulsive actions exhibit undermethylation and associated low levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

Choline is anti-dopaminergic and often makes OCD patients worse. They usually profit greatly from quality counseling, once the chemistry is fixed. This includes nearly every OCD patient we have seen. Inositol usually provides calming throughout the day and ability to settle down to sleep at night, for these patients. Most of then respond very well, albeit slowly, to aggressive doses of methionine, Vitamin B-6, and calcium.

A positive response can usually be achieved more rapidly with SAMe. I certainly agree that a lousy food choices can aggravate an eating disorder, and might even trigger it in a person with a tendency for OCD and delusional thinking. In my experience, most anorexics are perfectionistic, obsessive-compulsive, high-histamine, low serotonin persons. Most have a history of high accomplishment in school and were never discipline problems. Most anorexics also have a history of being overweight, at least in their eyes.

When they begin to diet, their OCD takes over and they go to great extremes. Also, when these emaciated skeletons of people look in the mirror, they tell me that all they see is FAT. Her condition is still serious. Typical characteristics for this patient population include undermethylation, weak functioning of the BH4 rate-limiting steps in synthesis of serotonin, and dopamine, low calcium levels, excessive folate levels, and high oxidative stress. Other helpful nutrients for OCD are methionine, calcium and magnesium…… since virtually all OCD patients are undermethylated, low-serotonin persons.

Inositol is especially helpful for undermethylated persons for example most persons with OCD , but can cause negative side effects in those who are overmethylated. Oxidative stresses often are the cause of the malabsorption or maldigestion problems….. Sending in more enzymes can have limited effect in this case. The new soldiers are killed off as soon as they enter the fray. We find that zinc therapy and metallothionein-promotion therapy can be effective in easing oxidative stress in the G.

The levels will be abnormal in the presence of toxic overloads of mercury, cadmium, lead, antimony, etc. A hair analysis for the metals can provide some information also. Biochemical individuality is the key since there are many different biochemical abnormalities which may be at the root of the disorder…. As a result most of these patients exhibit high-normal or worse levels of toxic elements. The toxic metals are not the cause of the condition, but rather a consequence of genetic abnormality in metal-metabolism.

Use of oral chelation is a short-term solution since DMSA, DMPS, etc do nothing to prevent lead, cadmium, mercury, etc from accumulating in the body again due to natural environmental exposures. Personally, I greatly favor metallothionein promotion therapy which can provide enduring benefits. Many patients report a very nice improvement within a few days after oral chelation…..

Most practitioners who supervise chelation focus on driving toxic metals out of the body. This clearly indicates that the improvements achieved were due to antioxidative benefits, rather than exit of toxic metals.

Occasionally we encounter a patient who has actually been severely poisoned by a toxic metal, and chelation is the first option. However, this is really quite rare. Another factor to consider is the high incidence of oxidative stress in the G. This condition is especially common in autism-spectrum disorders. Failure to correct the oxidative stress would doom supplemented enzymes to an early death.

The digestive enzymes are mowed down as soon as they enter the G. On the other hand, amino acid supplements can be quite helpful, even if digestive enzymes are absent. They are already completely broken down to the form needed for efficient absorption. Of course, proper enzymatic action is needed for effective processing of dietary protein and other foods, a requisite for good G. The casein-free, gluten-free diet often results in rapid striking improvements.

However, nutritional supplements which overcome G. Normalization of zinc, metallothionein, and glutathione in the G. It takes about weeks for the G. Many of these same patients completely lost their sensitivity to casein and gluten after the antioxidant supplementation…..

Since psychic stress increases oxidative stress in the brain, sudden easing of emotional traumae would be expected to have a direct and beneficial chemical effect on the brain.

Chelation to remove metals should be helpful only a in cases involving massive poisoning by heavy metals, or b in cases in which the normal protective systems fail to function properly. However, chelation can provide weeks of benefits just from the antioxidant effect, whether or not there are nasty metals present.

Did you know that nearly all psychiatric medications are powerful anti-oxidants? Paranoia is a symptom rather than a specific disease condition, and is associated with a number of biochemical imbalances. First of all, it is clear that paranoia generally involves a genetic predisposition.

In my experience paranoia usually involves either highly elevated norepinephrine or diminished GABA levels. The patients are usually afflicted with multiple medications which can provide some relief, albeit with very unpleasant side effects. For females, paranoia tends to flare up during hormonal events including puberty, childbirth, and menopause.

I believe there are 4 major factors at work here: We have seen more than 3, persons with clinical depression including several hundred with a history of post-partum depression.

Most PPD females exhibit a copper overload and zinc deficiency. Depression, anxiety, panic episodes, and paranoia in pregnancy are often caused by an inborn inability to regulate copper and zinc in the body. Persons who have a genetic tendency for copper overload get into real trouble during and immediately after pregnancy since elevated Cu levels in blood result in diminished dopamine and elevated norepinephrine in the brain.

This is a recipe for panic attacks, depression, etc. I suggest a blood serum test for copper and a plasma test for zinc. If the levels are severely abnormal, there are natural treatments which can decisively correct the problem. The first step is to discontinue pre-natal vitamin supplements that contain copper. Individual psychiatric medications can impact methylation, histamine levels, oxidative stress, and can result in depletion or accumulation of specific proteins, enzymes, neurotransmitters, vitamins, and minerals.

A published article of interest is one by John Crayton research psychiatrist, then at U. Crayton measured dendrite populations with and without psychiatric medication.

He found that psychiatric medication I think he focused on Prolixin caused a proliferation of dendrites on peripheral neurons. This, of course, is a permanent change….. This article received very little attention, despite its striking finding….. Omega 3s can worsen mental symptoms in bipolar or schizophrenic patients…. They thrive on Primrose Oil, a good source of AA and other omega 6s. Most persons with pyroluria respond very quickly to the B-6, Zn, C, E therapy…..

Major improvements are often seen by the 2nd day, and almost always by the end of the first week. When pyroluria is diagnosed along with another chemical imbalance, I like to track a patient during the first weeks to determine which is the dominant imbalance. Some patients report a nice early improvement followed by a plateau, and then another advance.

Schizophrenic and bipolar pyrolurics usually report some progress after a few weeks, but it may take months to get to steady state. The biggest problem with the Kp analysis is getting a proper sample to the lab. The kryptopyrrole molecule is unstable and will disappear rapidly at room temperature or if exposed to bright light.

The urine sample must be placed in a freezer immediately after acquisition. Finally, the sample must be maintained in a frozen condition during shipment. I would greatly suspect any Kp value below 3. With respect to reference levels: We consider persons between 10 and 20 to have mild pyroluria, and a good response to treatment is usually reported. Longitudinal testing of pyrolurics has shown that major variations can occur during a day. For example, Arthur Shawcross famous NY serial killer had levels ranging from 35 to , with higher levels observed during stressful periods in prison.

However, he always tested as pyroluric in multiple tests. Stresses, illnesses, injury, etc can be expected to elevate Kp levels. Medical history and review of symptoms are vital to this diagnosis. The major challenge in differential diagnosis of pyroluria is the similarity in symptoms between pyroluria and overmethylation low blood histamine. These persons may be high achievers, with great internal tension….. Persons with pyroluria alone tend to underachieve, partly because of a poor short term memory and associated reading problems.

Low hair zinc correlates beautifully with low plasma levels. However, very elevated Zn in hair nearly always means Zn deficiency and loss plasma Zn levels. Most of the time this involves a Pyrrole disorder which results in very high Zn excretion in urine and hair. In a healthy person without metal-metabolism problem, only about 4 percent of excreted Zn leaves through the kidneys. Pyroluria definitely runs in families. The mother had a Kp level of over herself.

SAMe is very promising for undermethylated persons and a bad idea for those who suffer from a genetic tendency for overmethylation. SAMe can do great harm if given to the wrong person. I hate going to funerals. Most of our methyl groups come from dietary methionine. SAMe is a relatively unstable carrier of methyl groups and is the primary source of methyl for most reactions in the body. Once the methyl group has been donated, the residual molecule is s-adenosyl-homocysteine which converts to homocysteine.

TMG betaine is a biochemical which can donate a methyl group to homocysteine, thus converting it back to methionine. Methionine and SAMe supplements directly introduce new methyl groups into the body. In some persons, the methylation effect of TMG is very minimal.

The answer for them is NOT to more efficiently convert the small amount of homocysteine to methionine using TMG , but rather to directly introduce more methionine or SAMe into the body. A small percentage of persons with sufficient dietary methionine cannot efficiently produce SAMe — These persons need supplemental SAMe, and not methionine or TMG and are the exception to the rule. In most other cases, methionine supplements alone are sufficient.

TMG is a great way to treat individuals with dangerously high homocysteine levels. The challenge is to supply enough methyl groups to help the patient, without creating dangerously high levels of homocysteine.

A quick way to test for need for methylation therapy is to carry out a cautious trial of SAMe. Within a week or two you should have your answer. If she clearly is improving on the SAMs which is frightfully expensive ….. This should be side-effect free unless a the methylation is begun too abruptly or b the patient has a rare genetic enzyme disorder which disrupts the SAM cycle.

The primary way humans receive most of their methyl groups is from dietary methionine. Bipolar disorder is not a single condition, but a collection of very different biochemical disorders under the same umbrella diagnosis. SAMe works great for truly undermethylated patients, but all hell breaks out if given to someone who is overloaded genetically with methyl groups.

Interestingly, the schizophrenia would often skip a generation. There are a number of biochemical ingredients which predispose to each phenotype of SZ….. Carl Pfeiffer was the first to develop meaningful chemical classifications of schizophrenia and separate treatments for each phenotype.

Carl Pfeiffer of Princeton, N. Most severely mentally ill persons with a history of exceptional artistic or musical talent test as overmethylated. The biochemical recipe for these patients usually consists of 1 overmethylation, 2 low folate levels, and 3 elevated blood copper levels. All three of these chemical imbalances impact dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, and together can cause rather extraordinary abnormalities in these important neurotransmitters.

In my opinion, the key to successful treatment is biochemical treatment to overcome these chemical imbalances…… fortunately this can be accomplished using aggressive therapy with nutrients to normalize the chemical factors. Most mental breakdowns are triggered by severe stress, but the underlying cause is genetic and involves brain chemistry.

Many persons self-medicate with alcohol, marijuana, or other illegal drugs in a desperate attempt to feel better. Many patients and their families erroneously believe that the EtOH or drug experiences were the underlying cause of the condition.

This adult-onset condition will strike eventually in most cases, even if substance abuse never occurs. However, these patients are usually plagued by drug side effects and are a mere shadow of their original selves.

Since most patients hate these medications, poor compliance is a major problem. This rarely occurs with traditional medication therapy. Some of schizophrenics who spontaneously get better are those who experience a toxic psychosis. I have a friend who had a toxic psychosis after an accidental overdose of a medication during childbirth. For 6 hours she was a full blown paranoid schizophrenic….. No symptoms in the following 20 years. Also, schizophrenia comes in mild, moderate, and severe versions.

Many persons with a very mild genetic tendency for SZ can experience an environmental insult which pushes them into a temporary mental illness. Most will become quite ok with or without therapy. The real problem is the millions of SZ persons who have moderate to severe SZ which does not go away easily. Based on epigenetic science, niacin should be beneficial to overmethylated SZ patients and harmful to undermethylated SZ patients. I believe that Taurine is especially effective for 1 combating seizure tendency and 2 reducing liver stress in processing fats.

There have been several reports of intolerances and side effects from use of Taurine, and I feel that indiscriminant high doses are unwise. About 12 months ago, there was a fad among several alternative practitioners in which high doses of Taurine were given to every autistic patient. The molecular biology of this process is becoming very well defined, and it is clear that many environmental events can hinder or disrupt early brain development.

The primary culprits are oxidative stress, teratological chemicals, and infections. The least appreciated of these harmful factors is oxidative stress which can deplete key proteins and enzymes required for normal brain development.

Environmental harm to a developing fetus can result from a biochemical inadequacies of the mother, and b external environmental insults. Although lower on the radar screen, fetal oxidative stresses can be equally devastating. For example high emotional stresses or physical trauma to the mother will weaken the activity of metallothionein MT and glutathione GSH proteins, and increase oxidative stress in the brain.

MT-1 and MT-2 are directly involved in growth of immature brain cells. MT-3 is a key protein required for pruning and growth inhibition. These proteins also have the job of defending against oxidative stress in the brain and are consumed in the process. Maternal emotional stresses and psychic traumae deplete the embryonic brain of MT proteins and can compromise brain development.

Rather, it is solidly supported by scientific fields such as embryology and molecular biology. If the net result of the traumae is biochemical or neurotransmitter differences, then biochemical therapy aimed at normalizing brain chemistry would be indicated. If the traumae resulted in diminished ability to tolerate environmental toxins for example an incompetent blood-brain barrier , then avoidance of such toxins would be an important aspect of treatment.

If the traumae resulted in an innate inability to cope with emotional stresses, then counseling or other psychological services could be very beneficial. There have been several recent published articles which indicate that zinc and zinc metallothionein proteins 1 tend to prevent brain strokes, 2 tend to assist brain recovery after strokes, and 3 that deficiency of Zn or Zn-MT is associated with increased stroke likelihood.

An occasional test for plasma Zn could help identify the proper dosage. B-6 is very helpful in enhancing the utilization of Zn. They consider about 10 different methods including packed cells, taste tests, etc…… The last two symposia resulted in the consensus that none of the testing options is wonderful, but that the best of the commercially available tests is plasma zinc.

However the Zn experts also stated that the most definitive determination of zinc depletion is the presence of symptoms of Zn depletion which disappear after Zn supplementation. Our standard protocol involves plasma Zn, being careful to use acid-etched, trace-metal-free tubes. Our patient population for ASD is 2, The high level of zinc depletion in ASD appears to stem from a genetic weakness in the metallothionein protein system.

Tracking plasma Zn, serum Cu and serum ceruloplasmin levels can be very helpful in guiding dosages aimed at normalizing Zn. Sometimes rather extraordinary Zn dosages are required to normalize blood Zn levels. Virtually all ASD persons are Zn depleted. A minority of ASD patients exhibit normal or low Cu levels in serum, but have vastly inadequate levles of ceruloplasmin.

Feb 25, The two primary ingredients for paranoid schizophrenia are a elevated copper levels and b over-methylation. July 22, Antidepressants and Cancer The FDA requires that all psychiatric medications be tested in animal studies for possible enhanced cancer risk. The box score on three drugs is as follows: No evidence of carcinogenesis. Autism Autism involves a powerful genetic component, so the real question is whether these genetically autism-prone children are hypersensitive to mercury.

Feb 20, For years, autism was the most difficult population for our clinic to work with, compared to persons diagnosed with behavior disorders, ADHD, depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar, or schizophrenia.

However, this has changed following our discovery of the central importance of the metallothionein protein in ASD and development of metallothionein-promotion therapy At Dr.

Feb 22, I believe this can all be explained by the fact that estrogen and progesterone enhance metallothionein, whereas testosterone suppresses it. May 17, There is no longer any doubt that autism results from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. June 9, At the request of an autism parent group about 6 months ago, I checked out iron levels in our population of 3, autism patients.

Nov 3, ASD usually involves multple chemical imbalances, including…. B6 The dangers of B-6 have been greatly overexaggerated. Feb 22, Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is not a single condition, but an umbrella term which includes a number of very different biochemical abnormalities. The three primary biochemical classifications of bipolar disorder are the following: Incidence of bipolar depression diagnosis during lifetime: March 27, DMAE passes the blood-brain barrier and converts to choline in the brain.

Aug 15, Childhood Bipolar Disorder. Candida Another effective way to combat candida is using zinc therapy. March 6, Copper A complication is that blood levels of copper can be very low in persons who have severe copper overload.

April 10, Selenium deficiency itself could result in a nasty copper elevation. April 14, The ideal ratio of serum copper to plasma zinc is in the range 0. The results are quite spectacular This study indicates excellent efficacy for young persons…. Feb 6, Many years ago I did a study examining chemistry differences between male siblings in which one was a violent delinquent and the other a well-behaved child.

July 28, In the beginning, we had no way of knowing if the biochemical differences were a causative factor or simply an association. July 28, Coral Calcium The calcium in Coral Calcium is mostly calcium carbonate, which provides the highest amount of calcium absorbed per unit volume. Best lab for this test is Direct Healthcare Access in Glenview IL 2 Low Histamine over-methylated Low-histamine depressives are usually nervous, anxious individuals who are prone to paranoia and despair. The list of things to avoid include the following: Enriched foods with Cu added learn to read the labels 3.

I recommend that she drink bottled water. The primary foods to avoid are chocolate, carob and shellfish. June 2, Estimated incidence of hypercupremia in our depressive population: Sep 28, I once collaborated with Dr.

NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION