Niacin might effect your HDL level some but would add exercise to the mix. Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease CVD is the commonest cause of death in the industrialized world, with incidence rates increasing as people enter their fifth decade of life. Opinions aside, is there any conclusive evidence supporting the lipid hypothesis or not. An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery. Even insurance companies now encourage a lower fat, plant based diet to reverse chronic conditions. International trade may alleviate poverty for some countries but makes fish as food increasingly unattainable in poor areas. You and your daughter have different type of body and metabolizes food different ways.
The hepatic vein drains the liver. The hepatic portal vein drains the digestive system. The femoral veins drain the legs. The sciatic veins drain the hip or thigh regions.
In most species, red blood cells are about 6 x 12 microns in size mammalian RBC's are typically 5. Typical concentrations are 2. Avian red blood cells have a lifespan of days shorter than mammals, e.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body, and are produced in the bone marrow. However, many bird bones are pneumatic penetrated by air sacs and do not contain marrow. Hemopoietic bone marrow red-blood-cell-producing marrow is located in the radius, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus, scapula, furcula clavicles , pubis,and caudal vertebrae.
Skeleton of a Rock Pigeon Columba livia showing the bones shaded that contain red-blood-cell-producing marrow, including the radius and ulna of the wing, femur and tibiotarsus of the leg, furcula and scapula of the pectoral girdle, pubis of the pelvic girdle, and caudal vertebrae. Most other bones except for very small ones are pneumatized Schepelmann Under these conditions, natural selection favored the loss of nuclei in the red blood cells of mammals making the cells smaller and allowing capilaries to become even smaller in diameter and change to a biconcave shape increasing the amount of surface area and enhancing diffusion into and out of the red blood cells.
Birds, with their efficient respiratory system, evolved during the Jurassic when the oxygen content in the Earth atmosphere approached the present level, so there was no selective pressure to eliminate nuclei from their red blood cells or change in shape Gavrilov Thrombocytes are important in hemostasis blood clotting.
White blood cells play an important role in protecting birds from infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. Birds have several types of white blood cells: Avian White Blood Cells The lymphocyte is the most numerous white blood cell. Lymphocytes are either T-lymphocytes formed in the thymus or B-lymphocytes formed in the bursa of Fabricius. B-lymphocytes produce antibodies; T-lymphocytes attack infected or abnormal cells.
The heterophil is the second most numerous WBC in most birds. Heterophils are phagocytic and use their enzyme-containing granules to lyse ingested materials. Heterophils are motile and can leave blood vessels to engulf foreign materials. Monocytes are motile cells that can migrate using ameboid movements. Monocytes are also phagocytic. The function is these cells is unclear. Scanning electron microscope view of bird thrombocytes adhering to a collagen-lined plate exposure to collagen causes bird thrombocytes, and mammalian platelets, to release chemicals that make them 'sticky'; the chemicals released by mammalian platelets are different from those released by bird thrombocytes and make platelets 'stickier' than thrombocytes.
Avian thrombocytes are larger than mammalian platelets, have a nucleus, and, unlike mammalian platelets, do not form 3-dimensional aggregates. Can birds have heart attacks and strokes? Platelet thrombi that form in the coronary and carotid arteries of humans can also cause common vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction 'heart attacks' and stroke and are the target of drugs used to treat these diseases. Birds have high-pressure cardiovascular systems like mammals, but have nucleated thrombocytes in their blood rather than platelets.
Avian thrombocytes are larger than mammalian platelets and are less 'sticky' because they release different chemicals than mammalian platelets when exposed to collagen connective tissue to which thrombocytes and platelets are exposed when there's a break in a blood vessel. When carotid arteries of mice are damaged, platelets form thrombi that can block blood flow check this video showing the response of human platelets when exposed to a plate covered with collagen ; similar damage to the carotid arteries of Budgerigars similar in size and speed and pressure of blood flow to the carotid arteries of mice did not cause the formation of thrombi check this video showing the response of chicken thrombocytes when exposed to a plate covered with collagen.
These results indicate that mammalian platelets, in contrast to avian thrombocytes, will form thrombi even in arteries where blood flow is rapid and under high pressure, an essential element in human cardiovascular diseases. Heart disease linked to evolutionary changes that may have protected early mammals from trauma.
Covariation between relative brain mass of juvenile birds and relative mass of bursa of Fabricius in different bird species. Relative mass was calculated as residuals from a phylogenetically corrected regression of logtransformed organ mass on logtransformed body mass. The lines are the linear regression lines for males and females, respectively From: B-lymphocytes, the cells that produce antibodies, are initially produced in the embryonic liver, yolk sac and bone marrow, then move through the blood to the bursa of Fabricius BF.
Within the BF, B-lymphocytes mature then migrate to other body tissues. The bursa is a blind sac that extends from the dorsal side of the cloaca, the common portal of the reproductive, urinary, and digestive systems. Within the bursas of young birds are extensive leaf-like folds composed of simple, columnar epidermis and a loose connective tissue with lots of blood vessels and lymph nodules.
Atrophy of the BF typically occurs around the time of sexual maturation. In birds, most of the Ig diversification occurs by gene conversion in the bursa of Fabricius. However, further Ig diversification is achieved by somatic hypermutation in secondary lymphoid organs From: B-lymphocytes produce three classes of antibodies after exposure to a disease organism: Ig M appears after days following exposure to a disease organism and then disappears by days. Ig A appears after 5 days following exposure.
This antibody is found primarily in the mucus secretions of the eyes, gut, and respiratory tract and provides "local" protection to these tissues. Antibodies do not have the capability to kill viruses or bacteria directly. Antibodies especially IgY perform their function by attaching to disease organisms like bacteria and blocking their receptors.
The disease organisms are then prevented from attaching to their target cells. The attached antibodies can also facilitate the destruction of pathogens by phagocytes. The T-lymphocytes include a more heterogeneous population than the B-cells. Some T-cells act by producing lymphokines over 90 different ones have been identified ; others directly destroy disease organisms.
Some T-cells act to enhance the response of B-cells, macrophages, or other T-cells helpers ; others inhibit the activity of these cells suppressors. Charles Darwin first noted that the choosy peahen plays a crucial role in the evolution of this extravagant sexual display. If this be admitted, there is not much difficulty in understanding how male birds have gradually acquired their ornamental characters," Darwin wrote. Hamilton and Zuk first suggested that 'showy' males were signaling to females that they were, if not parasite-free, then parasite "lite.
Moller believes it is because people have been looking at the wrong parasites. It would be practically impossible, so we decided to focus on the immune system. They discovered that the condition and length of the peacock's tail was related to the production of B-cells, and the size of the eye spots to T-cell production.
Males, in effect, are walking billboards advertising their health and status. And these things matter. Previous research has shown that in chickens and quail, at least, the immune system is under genetic control so offspring will inherit their parents' ability to fight parasites.
Thus, it pays for females to be choosy because their chicks, in turn, will survive better and mate with other, equally picky females. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these demographic patterns of senescence are poorly understood. Immunosenescence, the age-related deterioration of immune function, is well documented in humans and in laboratory models, and often leads to increased morbidity and mortality due to disease.
However, little is known about immunosenescence in free-living organisms. Immune function in female Tree Swallows showed a complex pattern with age; acquired T-cell mediated immunity declined with age, but neither acquired nor innate humoral immunity did.
In vitro lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by T-cell mitogens decreased with age, suggesting that reduced T-cell function might be one mechanism underlying the immunosenescence pattern of in vivo cell-mediated response recently described for this same population. These results provide the most thorough description of immunosenescence patterns and mechanisms in a free-living vertebrate population to date. Future research should focus on the ecological implications of immunosenescence and the potential causes of variation in patterns among species.
The avian cardiovascular system is able to quickly respond to changes in levels of activity e. Measurements of resting heart rate were obtained only after each bird had ceased activity in the dark cage and remained quiet.
The heart rate in an excited state during excitement was measured when the animal became maximally excited because its movement in the cage was restrained manually Machida and Aohagi This is hardly a healthy appearance. The only effective way to create a negative net-calorie balance is to follow a reduced calorie diet.
If one truly desires to increase their caloric expenditure, then it is strength training they should focus on. Some people will point out that the metabolism is also elevated for several hours afterwards, but this increase is negligible, and hardly worth it.
Aerobics can cause you to burn fewer calories the rest of the time though, since when taken too far it can cause a loss of muscle, and can prevent your body from producing the increases in muscular strength and size stimulated during strength training.
Strength training, on the other hand, increases the amount of calories your body burns all the time, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Every pound of muscle added to the body of an adult human increases caloric expenditure by an average of 30 calories per day.
More importantly though, proper strength training is necessary to ensure discriminate weight loss while dieting. If one diets, or does aerobics, or both, but does no strength training, the weight lost will come from a combination of fat, muscle, and organ tissue. One of the most effective means of accomplishing this is to decrease the amount of metabolically expensive tissue, one of the most expensive being muscle.
Strength training is necessary to ensure that the body maintains, and hopefully increases muscle mass while fat is lost. Adding aerobics usually makes things worse. It can prevent much of the improvements stimulated by the strength training workouts, and keep you chronically fatigued and hungry. Research by Westcott and Darden has demonstrated strength training and diet produce greater improvements in body composition when not performed in conjunction with aerobics.
So what is a moderately reduced calorie diet? Just that, a moderate reduction in caloric intake. There are several ways to determine the amount of calories one should consume while trying to lose fat. Mike Mentzer recommends recording your average daily caloric intake over a period of 5 days to and comparing it to changes in bodyweight to estimate average daily caloric expenditure. If your weight stays the same, your intake equals your expenditure, if you lose, your intake is less than your expenditure, if you gain, your intake exceeds your expenditure.
Once you determine your average daily caloric expenditure, subtracting from this amount will give you the number of calories you must consume in a day to produce a rate of fat loss of approximately one pound per week. Another means of estimating caloric intake for fat loss is to multiply your lean body mass in pounds by 10, absolute minimal number being 1, and then adding to this number.
The result is your daily caloric intake for the first two weeks of a six-week dieting cycle. During weeks 3 and 4 you would consume less calories per day, and during weeks 5 and 6, less calories per day.
If after the end of the six weeks you have more fat to lose, repeat the cycle. Her 6-week cycle would be as follows:. His 6-week cycle would be as follows:. Once you achieve the degree of leanness you want, simply gradually increase your average daily caloric intake by kcals every week until you stop losing fat to determine your maintenance level. Realize that even though total caloric intake is reduced while on a diet, your average daily protein intake in grams should remain the same.
The reduction in calories should come from carbohydrate and fat intake. Aerobics is simply not necessary for fat loss and makes no meaningful contribution to a fat loss program. Tweet Post navigation Biochemical Model: Drew, you are truly an encyclopeadia of the science of fitness and excercise. Whenever I need authoritative information on an topic,I read your articles.
To me you are truly a legend. Several years ago I maintained a routine of very intense strength-training but quit. The result was that a short while later I had insufficient fitness for anything more intense than walking.
The body experiences conditions, adapts to them, reverts when the conditions are removed — period. And I did a LOT of walking. So yeah — I feel qualified to call bullshit on that advice. I now tell everyone to just at least do some push-ups and squats, especially women who have been conditioned to fear muscular exercise and are apt to opt for walking or an aerobics vid instead.
And on the days in between I get the urge to go swimming, or do kettle bell swings, just to help build up my overall energy levels and stamina.
And because I just enjoy it! Do you think putting my energy into these extra exercises is reducing the benefit I get from the resistance training? I tend to do nothing but rest the day directly after. If not, either cut back a little or give yourself more time to recover between workouts. I am currently studying Sport and Exercise science at college and had a recent assignment to create a 6 week plan for a m runner and a shot putter.
For the cardiovascular and aerobic aspect for muscular enduranceI put in a high intense circuit, seconds of three exercises taken to failure, leg press, lat pulldown and shoulder press, cycled three times, as youve logically and reasonably pointed out is a superior, efficient and SAFE way to improve these things. I got a failure! I was told HIT training doesnt improve cardiovacular od aerobic endurance.
Maybe promote hypertrophy but nothing else! I invited them to do it just once and see for themselves. I do it and have a 1. But there you go. Whats more, to get a distinction Ill have to justify it as well! I had the same experience when I was in college.
I would also raise my hand in class and correct the professor on answers he gave to other students. Just be aware that most of what is taught about exercise application in exercise physiology, kinesiology, and physical therapy courses is nonsense, and question everything they tell you.
When I start finding myself agreeing with them, Ill start to worry! Something like this would require a forum, which to maintain the quality and civility of discussion would require moderation, which would be a significant expense which could only be justified if enough people were paying for membership in the forum. Unfortunately, despite the tremendous value the discussions and information would provide very few people would be willing to pay for it.
This is why despite the massive amount of information I have published for free on this web site I always hold the best back for inclusion in my books and for my one-on-one and long-distance clients.
You are welcome to prove me wrong. I have no doubts that high-intensity strength training increases efficiency of the pumping aspect of cardiovascular system, increasing blood and therefore nutrient flow to tissues. However, there is one benefit of aerobic exercise or any other activity more intense than resting while below anaerobic threshhold that pure HIT does not bring, and may even slightly only that thanks to short sessions work against.
Pumping lots of oxygenated blood is not all there is to it.